The University confers higher doctorates in Divinity (DD), Law (LLD), Science (ScD), Letters (LittD) and Music (MusD) either as full degrees by submission and assessment of major academic work, or as titular degrees honoris causa, i.e. honorary degrees. Other doctorates, such as the PhD, are conferred only by submission and assessment. When higher doctorates are conferred honoris causa the recipients are individuals of outstanding national, or usually international, achievement in their field and normally no more than eight are conferred in a year. Recipients can be of any nationality. Occasionally the Master of Arts degree (MA) is also conferred as a titular honorary degree, on those who have made exceptional and direct contributions to the life of the University or City of Cambridge.